In addition, Google is starting to allow use of Android apps on select Chromebooks. Probably will look at expanding it to all Chromebooks in the long-haul. Can see this being a very highly used feature.
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As Chrome OS is based on a very restricted Linux kernel (as Spatry stated), it would make sense that there would be a way to install FOSS software on there. Hopefully, as time passes this will be easier and more streamlined to do and it doesn't turn into a game of Google trying to control, patch, and limit Chrome OS.